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Air.O Carpet by Mohawk

Question from Donna

We are replacing the carpet in all of our bedrooms, which adds up to over 1200 sq. ft.  We’ve priced out wool carpet and padding, and it is very expensive.  (I don’t want hardwood flooring upstairs in the bedrooms for several reasons.)  A vendor is recommending Air.O carpet by Mohawk, which is supposed to be VOC and odor free and is carpet and padding in one.  It’s also supposed to be hypoallergenic and made of 100% PET.  They have stated there are no flame retardants in the backing.  Have you heard of this carpet and what would you think of it as a more economical option?  Thank you!

Lisa’s Answer

This is a great example of a product with a second-party certification, which means it is certified by an industry association affiliated with the products it tests.  In this case, the The Carpet and Rug Institute, a  carpet industry association has come up with its own certification called the Green Label Plus Indoor Air Quality Standard.  Keep in minded, it has a vested interest in certifying as many rugs and carpets as possible to earn revenue and sell more products.  On its website it actually states that, “the carpet industry has a long history of creating products that provide numerous benefits, especially for indoor air quality.”  In fact, carpets are a know source of VOC emissions.

It is difficult to understand the criteria for certification based on the information provided on the website, however, it does comply with California’s Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) low-emitting materials criteria, which are fairly rigorous.  The claim that it is VOC free most likely means that it has VOC emission, but the levels fall below a certain standardl.

Without more specific information, I would assume that this is a better choice than other synthetic wall-to-wall carpets but not as safe as one made of natural materials.  Understanding cost is an issue, I would ask the company these additional questions.

What is the level ( in parts per million) of formaldehyde emissions?

Is the entire product free of flame retardants or just the backing?

Are chromium dyes used in the carpeting?


Mold Remediation

Question from Catherine

After sanitizing the moldy basement in the house we just bought, remediators want to apply a protectant/encapsulant to seal the surfaces.  The two possibilities are Bac-Shield ( and Caliwel (  I’m terribly sensitive. What do you think?

Lisa’s Answer

Caliwel claims no VOCs and uses Calcium Hydroxide (lime) as an active ingredient, which is an irritant but not particularly toxic in this application.  Here is an older thread that discussing some companies using hydrogen peroxide for remediation.  Cailwel does not seem particularly toxic but hydrogen peroxide is safer.  As for your personal sensitivity, every individual is different so its impossible to tell what you might cause you to react.

I was not able to find information about Bac-Shield’s VOC content so I would go with Caliwel due to the lack of information.


Thuiram Mix

Question from Catherine

Looking for shoes, sneakers not made with thuiram mix.

Lisa’s Answer

This is not something I have researched.  Readers, has anyone looked into this?

Toxins in Toilet Paper

We use toilet paper multiple times a day in our most personal of areas.  Yet, we hear about scary stuff that could be hiding in each roll.  With so many options on the shelves it’s difficult to figure what to use and what to avoid.  Here are the toxins to be wary of and a guide to help you choose the right brand for you.

Chlorine Dioxide

Toilet paper brands made from virgin pulp (not recycled paper) are usually bleached with chlorine dioxide.  When you hear or read about chlorine in toilet paper it’s misleading because chlorine dioxide is different from chlorine.  Until the late 1990s, pure chlorine, or elemental chlorine, was used for paper bleaching and was a significant source of dioxin.   Dioxins, which are persistent environmental pollutants and accumulate in the food chain, are among the most toxic chemicals on earth. The EPA began regulating the paper industry which led North American paper mills to convert from elemental chlorine to chlorine derivatives, such as chlorine dioxide, which are significantly less toxic and reduce the potential for dioxins by 90%.  So, today’s toilet paper bleached with chlorine dioxide is safer than the paper produced decades ago with elemental chlorine.  Unfortunately, that doesn’t mean chlorine dioxide is safe. It’s strictly regulated by the EPA as a hazardous chemical.  And it still releases dioxins into the environment which is detrimental at any level.

This background is important to understand when reading marketing claims on toilet paper packaging. The following acronyms are used by the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry to describe “safer” bleaching processes. Here’s what they really mean:

(ECF) Elemental Chlorine Free:  Paper bleached with chlorine dioxide instead of elemental chlorine.

As we know, elemental chlorine is no longer used in the U.S. to bleach paper products, so this does not mean that products with this label are any safer than others.  In fact, we know that chlorine dioxide is still a danger to humans and to the environment.  Some brands also claim “Chlorine-Free”.  Be wary of this as it can simply mean that they use a chlorine derivative such as chlorine dioxide.

(PCF) Process Chlorine Free:  This is used for recycled paper.  It means no chlorine or chlorine derivative was added during the production process. Ozone, oxygen or hydrogen peroxide are used for bleaching.

(TCF) Totally Chlorine Free:  This is used for virgin paper.  Ozone, oxygen or hydrogen peroxide are used for bleaching.


Some brands of toilet paper use formaldehyde to make the paper stronger when it is wet.

Formaldehyde is a carcinogen as well as an irritant.  One study linked toilet paper to chronic irritation in women.  If a brand claims that it is particularly thick, strong, or absorbent, suspect that it contains formaldehyde.


Recycled toilet paper is made from paper scraps.  Thermal paper, such as cash register receipts are a known source of BPA.  When they get processes to make recycled paper, trace amounts of BPA can end up in the finished product.  A 2011 study found that 80 of 94 toilet paper brands contained BPA.  However, for perspective, BPA in toilet paper was detected in microgram-per-gram concentrations while thermal paper receipts were measured in milligram-per-gram concentrations.  That’s 1000 times more exposure from receipts than toilet paper!


It’s difficult to get companies to disclose all of the chemical additives used for fragrance or added features like lotion.  We know that fragrances are often a cocktail of chemicals and sometimes include phthalates, a known endocrine disrupter.  Lotions can include parabens, which are linked to hormone disruption and breast cancer, as well as other harmful ingredients.  It’s best to avoid any products boasting these features.

Buying Guide

Avoid:  Toilet Paper made with Virgin Pulp

Sadly, this is the fluffy, white stuff that most people prefer.  If chlorine dioxide, dioxins and the possibility of formaldehyde are not enough to deter you, think of the fact that 54 million trees are harvested per year for toilet paper production.

Better: Recycled Toilet Paper

These brands will likely contain trace amounts of BPA.  While it is best to avoid all exposures to BPA, humans are at far greater risk of exposure from food and beverage containers and cash register receipts than from toilet paper.  If you choose this option, look for brands that contain 100% recycled content and are bleached with PCF.  Some brands do use ECF so look carefully.

It’s worth noting that Seventh Generation openly addresses the BPA problem on their website and are actively working toward solutions.  They should be commended for their transparency.  Plus, they use hydrogen peroxide for bleaching (which is PCF)!

Best:  100% Bamboo or Bamboo & Sugar Cane Toilet Paper

These brands do not contain BPA because there is no recycled content.  They do not need formaldehyde for strengthening because bamboo fibers are naturally strong.  Most of them use hydrogen peroxide for bleaching, although some use a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ECF.  An added benefit is that bamboo and sugar cane are grasses, not trees, which are naturally renewable.

Do they work?

None of these bamboo and sugar cane brands compare in softness or strength to traditional, virgin pulp brands.  However, if you are used to using recycled brands you will probably find these less-toxic alternatives to be good options.  Like the recycled brands, they vary widely in appearance and functionality. My family found 2 of the 5 brands we tried acceptable.


This was my favorite in the category.  The 3-ply sheets are the strongest of the five tested and did not break down during tough cleaning jobs.  It is relatively soft and thick and looks the most like traditional toilet paper.


Also 3-ply, this is soft and strong but not quite as thick as NooTrees.


This is not as soft as NooTrees or Wholeroll but it holds up and does an acceptable job.

Tree Free

This did not work for me. It is thin and rough and sometimes crumbles.


This did not work for me. It is thin and sometimes crumbles.

Non-Toxic Hangers

Question from Phoebe

I saw an older post about hangers, and I was wondering if anyone has any updated information. I am trying to fin non toxic hangers that will last that are preferably eco friendly as well. I cannot find the Ditto hangers for sale anywhere besides one sketchy seeming ebay seller. Did the whole non toxic, eco friendly hanger movement die? Any recommendations?

Lisa’s Answer

I also like chrome-plated hangers from The Container Store.  They don’t have any coatings.

LifeStraw Glass Water Filter

Question from Kathryn

Hello!  Curious if you’ve seen the LifeStraw glass water filter and think it could be valuable if not currently able to install a full filtration system…  thanks!

Lisa’s Answer

It’s good to see a countertop filter with a glass jug and an activated carbon filter.  Without doing a full analysis of other pitcher filters in the price range ($55), I can only give you a cursory assessment.  It doesn’t seem to filter harmful chemicals such as chlorine and lead as well as mainstream brands like Brita.  For example, Brita filters out 99% of lead and chlorine while LifeStraw filters 97% and 95.4%, respectively.  You are making a tradeoff of a glass pitcher for less effective filtering.

If you can afford a bit more, Pure Effect, which is what I have in my house, offers a counter top model for $170.  It does need to be hooked up to your faucet and does have plastic housing but it does the most comprehensive job of filtering chemicals and contaminants that I have found.


Titanium Dioxide in EnviroKlenz

Question from Lanette

Recently I’ve been reading a lot about the dangers of nano-particles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide in products, particularly in sunscreen. I know Debra was a big fan of Enviroklenz (air cleaners and related air purifying products), as am I. They all contain titanium dioxide. Is theirs the nano type or the non-nano type? Also would you give more information on what this is?

Lisa’s Answer

I confirmed with EnviroKlenz that the titanium dioxide is much larger than nano-particles and poses no health risk.

Lemi Shine Detergent Booster

Question from Liz

We have very hard water and I am SO SICK of the scum that builds up on everything that goes into the dishwasher I’m ready to trash the beast and do dishes by hand. But there are three in our house and we always cook meals at home, so that would be quite a chore so I’m looking for a different solution.

A friend recommended adding Lemi Shine Dish Detergent Booster when running the dishwasher, but I can’t find much about its toxicity. The package says it’s “Natural, Safe, Biodegradable, Phosphate Free, Non-Toxic, Septic system safe” but who knows if that means anything?

Any thoughts on this product? Or is there another you would recommend for very hard water? I’ve been using Biokleen dishwasher detergent, but it really doesn’t work here.

Lisa’s Answer

The website lists citric acid and fragrance as ingredients.  Citric acid is not a concern.  Fragrance, as you probably know, can be a mix of many potentially harmful chemicals.  The website’s Q&A section claims that only a small fraction of the fragrance is synthetic and most is essential oils.  It doesn’t sound terrible but there may be non-toxic alternatives.  Readers, any recommendations?

Futon Pad To Stop Slipping

Question from Shannon

After Debra Lynn Dadd educated me to the flame retardants and toxic foam in my sofa I replaced it with a futon. I have a solid wood futon frame and wool mattress with an organic cotton cover. My only problem is that the mattress keeps slipping off.  Can you recommended a way to stop this? The Futon Shop has a product called futon stop slip. It is made of foam. Is this non toxic?

Lisa’s Answer

While the site doesn’t say what it is made of other than “foam” it is likely polyurethane foam which is not non-toxic.  I use a natural latex rug pad under my carpeting which might work and its not super expensive.  Check it out here.  I’d prefer that the latex was GOLS certified but I wasn’t able to find one with certification.

Finding Non-Toxic Dishwashers

Dishwashers are one of the more difficult purchases when planning your non-toxic home because they use many different materials and it’s difficult to get manufacturers or retail sellers to disclose those materials.  Many sales representatives simply don’t know what’s used to make their products.


When I purchased my dishwasher a few years ago I was focused on finding models that didn’t use PCV in the racks.  Recently, a new material of concern, bitumen, has been a popular topic in Toxic-Free Q&A.


Bitumen in Dishwashers


According to Wikipedia, bitumen, also known as asphalt, is a sticky, black, liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.  It’s widely used in dishwashers as a sound-deadening insulation.  Some consumers complain of a tar smell from newly installed units.


But, just how dangerous is bitumen when used in these conditions?  Research on the toxicity of asphalt focuses on the fumes that workers are exposed to in the pavement and roofing industries.  It’s less clear how much it off-gasses once cured.  Miele, a manufacturer of high-end dishwashers, claims that the bitumen is fully encapsulated and will never emit any vapor or fumes of any kind.  The bottom line is more testing needs to be done to better understand the toxicity of bitumen in this application.


Some models use more bitumen than others depending on the type of tub.  Base on the information I received from 7 manufacturers, dishwashers with stainless steel tubs generally use bitumen in the insulation on all sides of the tub. Dishwashers with plastic tubs generally only use bitumen in the door panel or lid.  So, is it better to have less bitumen with a plastic tub or more bitumen with a stainless steel tub?  Again, it’s hard to say without better understanding just how dangerous bitumen is under each condition.


Here’s where it gets even trickier.  The one model I found that does not use bitumen uses other materials for sound-deadening insulation.  The GE model GDF630PSMSS uses an insulation blanket and insulation mastic.  The manufacturer was unable to tell me the materials used in those items but according to Wikipedia, among the commonly used materials in insulation blankets are PTFE laminates.  That’s right, PTFE, otherwise known as Teflon.  Mastics, like coatings and paints, have a range of VOC levels depending on the formula, so it is impossible to assess the toxicity without more information.


A further complicating factor is that it’s difficult to rely on information gathered from manufacturers.  Some models that readers posted as free of bitumen are ones that I found to contain bitumen, but with a lower amount than other models.   Again, I don’t believe this misleading information is intentional but more a lack of understanding by company employees.  Nonetheless, it’s hard to know exactly what you are getting.


Here’s how 7 dishwasher manufacturers reported their use of bitumen.

Bosch:  All models are made with bitumen.

Fisher & Paykel:  Sides are insulated with cotton fiber and bitumen is used on the top of the lid.

GE:  All models are made with bitumen with the exception of model #GDF630PSMSS which uses an insulation blanket and insulation mastic.

KitchenAid:  All have bitumen in some degree.  Models with stainless steel tubs use bitumen on all side. Models with plastic tubs only use bitumen in the door panel.

Maytag:  All have bitumen in some degree.  Models with stainless steel tubs use bitumen on all side.  Models with plastic tubs only use bitumen in the door panel.

Miele:  All models are made with bitumen, but it is fully encapsulated and will never emit any vapor or fumes of any kind.

Whirlpool:  All have bitumen in some degree.  Models with stainless steel tubs use bitumen on all side. Models with plastic tubs only use bitumen in the door panel.

Plastics in Dishwashers


This is actually some good news. Plastic components inside of new dishwashers, which can include tubs, racks, silverware baskets and spraying arms, are now being made with safer plastics.  PVC used to be a commonly used material in racks but fortunately, most are now made of nylon.  Plastic tubs, silverware baskets and spraying arms are usually made with polypropylene, which does not contain BPA or phthalates.  It’s worth verifying, before you purchase a specific model, that the parts are made with these safer plastics.


Let’s continue to gather information on dishwashers.  What has been your experience with new dishwasher purchases?  Are there detectable odors after installation and for how long?  Have you found a model that is free of bitumen?  Keep me posted!


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